Designing learning environments improving social interactions: essential variables for a virtual training space
Post on 11-Sep-2016
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2009) 24112415
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
World Conference on Educational Sciences 2009
Designing learning environments improving social interactions: essential variables for a virtual training space.
M. J. Hernndez-Serrano, M. Gonzlez-Snchez, J. Muoz-Rodrguez* Theory and History of Education Department, Faculty of Education, University of Salamanca, Paseo Canalejas 169, 37005 Salamanca, Spain.
Received October 25, 2008; revised December 16, 2008; accepted January 4, 2009
Growing development of advanced technologies demands, continuously, designing new educational strategies and instructional mechanisms to improve teaching and learning processes. Attempting to provide a new perspective to consider, we present the results of a recent research in which we investigated around the spatial character of technologies, which are integrated in virtual learning environments. Nowadays, Internet enables social interactions and, therefore, personal development by presenting different orders of space. There is a significant dimension generated under the interrelationship between the subject and the virtual learning space, mainly based on spatial variables. This complex relationship it is manifested throughout perceptual, emotional and socio-cognitive aspects evidenced by individuals when they are interacting with those virtual environments. After exposing a group of university students from an Educational Technology Master's degree to the interaction with different spaces (chat, forum, social environment and e-learning platform), we have analyzed their perceptions. Results evidenced that using and transforming virtual spaces involves converting technologies into new spaces of socialization. We noticed a number of characteristics of these spaces that generate a sense of place, and they are principally based on sociability matters; which should be taken into account when designing a virtual training space. Thus, we shall change to see the virtual spaces like a mere technological artefacts, to see them as contexts or environments of coexistence, interaction, as well a guide for personality development and construction of identities; spaces where the act of learning is part and product of the context and the social activity. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Keywords: Virtual space; learning environments; social interaction; Information and Communication Technologies.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 923294630 ext. 3451, fax: +34 923294627. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (Mara Jos Hernndez-Serrano)
1877-0428/$see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.423
2412 M. J. Hernndez-Serrano et al. / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2009) 24112415
There are less and less doubts about the significant role of Information and Communication Technologies in today's society. Each and every one of the areas of social and cultural life, times and locations are described by the speech that technology deploys, mainly through the Internet. In this sense, educational contexts are also starting to be impregnated by the technological introduction in many of their domains. In some cases, justification for using technologies comes from the enhancement of the educational process; in others it is a motivation for most students, because of the novelty and the new possibilities for enriching communications, at levels higher than usual.
Being, therefore, habituated to live with technology in classrooms needs a reflection around the educational foundation that supports strongly the appropriateness of the relationship between technology and education. The phenomenon of using new technologies in educational contexts demands the construction of a paradigm based on the practices that take place in the so-called virtual spaces for training. Such reasoning goes from our point of view, and based on some of the investigations carried out, as the one presented in this paper by justifying how the educational activities developed by the technologies have a spatial dimension; and thus the entire educational experiences ensued from these environments can be explained in terms of space, because in the virtual space there are places connected to the Net, where educational processes acquires a meaning, since places are perceived and felt by individuals, and let them construct their identities. As a result, after the network space exists a space of places riddled with many meanings (Eyles, 1985; Harasim, 1993; Badie, 1995).
There is a significant component generated under the interrelationship between the subject and the virtual space. This complex relationship it is manifested throughout perceptual, emotional and socio-cognitive aspects evidenced by individuals when they are interacting with these virtual environments. And sometimes the way subjects experience technologies may transcend to learning results. Thus, the spatial factor, and how it is felt and perceived by subjects in a virtual environment necessitates a deeper analyze, as well as new ways of understanding, different from the traditional spaces, in order to improve educational processed developed by technologies.
In this paper we present the main outcomes of a recent research work, in which we explain how the virtual space is no a mere metaphor, dew to the fact that experiences within space carries practices and spatial forms similar to those carried out in traditional places of learning. Our first purpose will be to provide understanding about the sense and function of the space by showing the relevance of some variables involved in the relationship subject-virtual space, through exposing the most important findings of our research. And the second purpouse will be, by discussing our resuls, to describe some useful considerations for designing learning environments able to improve social interactions, once proved that socio-spatial variables determinate the development of the educational process in virtuality.
2. Interpretation of virtuality from the space dimension
Virtualization of the educational process has increased dew to the technological possibilities, which have opened new ways for presenting information. And also have facilitated synchronous and asynchronous interactions among individuals belonging to different groups, which now have a common place for exchanging information and interests, despite whether they are geographically scattered.
Technological advances have developed an entirely new communication environments that is not subject to a physical one, and where information is located in a non-tangible area: the virtual space or cyberspace; so it is possible to transmit information so instantaneously and globally. These environments are breaking the unity of time, space and activity. Cyberspace is presented to us as an area of information, construction, development, learning and discovery.
Nevertheless, analysis of the interactions between subjects and advanced virtual spaces requires a more complex understanding, different than emphasizing informational and communicational possibilities.
Firstly, we must face up to the idea that the Internet has no spatial dimension because the interactions that occur are generated outside of a space at least by the way we are able to conceived space in the traditional places. On the contrary, it is necessary to argue that more and more technologies are delighted and experienced by the subjects in a clear spatial sense (Santos, 2000; Muntaola, 2004). A simple reflection on the semantic language we use to talk about our actions in these spaces: enter, leave, move, pass, visit... help us to realize that the language refers to a space character. And this makes space no longer connected with a physical place; hence the mental model of what space means is relative, although perceived. Because the movements are recreated; also the feeling of really being
M. J. Hernndez-Serrano et al. / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2009) 24112415 2413
there locating and occupying a place, as well noticing of how this place is progressing (improving or getting worse) when other individuals are interacting with.
In addition, several authors as Echeverria (2003), with his conceptualization of the three environments, or Hine (2000), with her reflections on virtual ethnography have established some legitimacy to the Network based on a socio-cultural mediation of the space. In this sense, it is may be possible understood that there is not only a semantic and rhetoric way of talking about virtual spaces, but also a spatial experience.
And secondly following the above considerations if the spaces educate, and the environments generated by the technological mediation could be considered as spaces (Munoz-Rodriguez, 2005) with educational potential, it is time to examining how becomes visible the main variables involving in the interrelationship between the subject and the virtual learning space.
3. Perceptions of space in virtual training environments: spatial variables
According to Pellegrino (2003), spaces are significant because involve social meanings, cultural, physical, personal, emotional... and all these meanings are the result, as McKie have reported (2000), not only of what the technology provokes for the individuals because its structure, possibilities, limitations or features, but also what the technology evokes, that is, the memory of what traditional known environments represent, compared with the virtual ones. Based on this approach, the study aimed to discover how these provocations and evocations are perceived by the subjects in the virtual learning environments.
Previously, in a first phase, it were described the set of meanings generated around the spatial dimension, derived from earlier researches (Garca del Dujo & Martn, 2002; Garca del Dujo & Muoz, 2003; Garca del Dujo & Muoz, 2004). These studies have defined several regularities around the relationship subject-space, which could be sum up into five coordinates: territoriality, emotional, relationality, meaningfulness and communicability. Variables included in the analysis were selected from these five dimensions.
As technologies are quite diverse, initially, four different spaces were selected to include in the analysis: chat, forum, a multi-user environment for interaction and communication (Habbo Hotel) and an e-learning platform (Moodle built). The interest was focused on making comparisons between spaces from a lower to a higher level of interactivity.
Then, some activities were designed in order to encourage individuals participation and interaction with the four spaces during a month; allowing them interacting spontaneously once activities ended, if necessary.
The instrument for data collection, a questionnaire, were designed based on the results of a preliminary phase where it were examined the concept of presence and other instruments used to analyze it (Slater, 1999; Lessiter et al., 2000; Schuemie et al., 2001, among others); items were revised and adapted to virtual spaces.
The questionnaire was focused on nine variables based on social and interactive issues: (1) perception of one's own presence in space, (2) role of observer or actor/participant, (3) degree of immersion, or losing the sense of reality; (4) emotional involvement, in a positive sense, (5) feeling of social closeness (6) creating an atmosphere of cooperation (7) interdependence between the actions of other subjects participating in the same space, (8) memories and/or likeness with physical spaces activities, and (9) positive disposition, to stay or come back to this space.
This instrument was structured in questions by scales from 1 to 5 (from strongly disagree to strongly agree with the statement) lay out in parallel, with the same questions for each space, so that compare different perceptions. It was administered at the end of the course, once activities for interaction were accomplished.
Finally, data analysis was running by statistical program SPSS, v.15; the procedure was the Repeated Measures ANOVA (General Linear Model), which test several means of different spaces (factors) for every one subject (within-subjects effects), using the sphericity assumed.
2414 M. J. Hernndez-Serrano et al. / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2009) 24112415
Twenty-two university students from an Educational Technology Master's degree were asked to participate in the study, and all of them were included in the research. 14 were women and 8 men. Most of them were in between the age 20 and 30 years. Only three subjects were older than 30 years.
First, relating to the feeling of "being" in space, namely, the perception of one's presence, significant results (p = 0.000) showed that spaces where the sense of presence is greater was in the chat because their higher levels of communication; and in the e-learning platform, which offers more possibilities and activities. Regarding the role of observer-participant significant differences were also found (p = 0.003). Where individuals had more the perception of "to be seeing things" was in the chat; and where most felt they were "doing things" was in the social environment. However no differences among spaces were found about the degree of immersion, in terms of losing the sense of reality, based on perceptions of being manipulated something on a screen, instead of being with others within a virtual space. The average indicates that individuals did not lose at any time their sense of reality (Vmax = 1.33, Vmin = 1; where 1 means never, and 5 always for this statement).
In terms of positive emotions, there were significant differences between the forum and chat (F = 10.56, p = 0.004), and also between the last two spaces, the platform and the social environment (F = 21.87, p = 0.000). By gender, the social environment and the forum were mostly defined by women like a space where they felt more comfortable (F = 3.32, p = 0.008); while men did not show differences. Age reported differences in emotions as well (F = 4.29, p = 0.001). The higher the subjects are the more involved they are in a positive sense, especially in the last two spaces. It should be noted how, in general, the chat is the space in which more positively they engaged, and also the social environment. Around the variables sense of social closeness and creating an atmosphere of cooperation and interdependence e-learning platform and chat was the spaces they felt more closeness, cooperation and where individuals more perceived that one's actions depended on performed by others (p = 0.000). Regarding the memory or the similarity with the physical space or activities only significant differences were found between the last two spaces (F = 8.39, p = 0.009). Activities more reminded them were chatting and teaching-learning actions in the electronic platform. In a considerable lower level, activities in social environment were alike too.
And finally, referring to possibility of staying longer in the space, or even return several times, again, chat and e-learning platform were the spaces highlighted by individuals (p = 0.000).
Results demonstrate a general trend that establishes clear differences between the chat and the e-learning platform which were evaluated more positively than the other spaces. Both spaces are not only those where individuals feel more comfortable, but also those most dependent on the activity of others, showing how individuals are emotionally involved in the spaces that facilitate social interactions. This is especially interesting from the point of view of the way technologies contribute to build genuine communities (Smith & Kollock, 2003), facilitating relationship and coexistence; as well as the way could contribute to generate learning interchanges. Hence, approaches around situated learning (Brown et al., 1989) gain importance; so, learning is seen as a process of incorporation into a growing community, and knowledge is part and product of the context and activity.
If we considered the influence of what spaces evoke to the subject, we observe how in the spaces where they are most comfortable are those where remind them social activities. Individuals preferred the virtual spaces that are familiar for them, and those where do not have to invent new patterns of activity. Virtual, thus, do not make us much more different, but remember our need for adaptation. Furthermore, virtual perceptions generated around spaces, allow us to assert the possibility of spaces could meet human needs such as exchange of knowledge and leisure needs among subjects with similar interests and experiences; and also, the sense of being identified and included in.
For that reason, during planning and designing a framework for supporting the teaching and learning processes in virtual environments, throughout different technologies, it will be essential to map the development of the interactions and sociability among individuals; seeing that learning is not only determined by the processes taking place inside the mind of a subject, but also because of the influence provided by the surrounding context and the social activities, even the sense of presence of the others.
M. J. Hernndez-Serrano et al. / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2009) 24112415 2415
It would be necessary, as well, designing spaces where individuals feel they are (re)presented in, with a diversity of activities facilitating movements, and feeling social closeness for motivating emotions and collaboration. According to this, and considering the lower outcomes obtained about similarity of the virtual social environment, it would be necessary to design spaces more adaptable, able to rise the likeness. Additionally, further research should be need to explore the possibilities of other virtual environments as SecondLife or Lively, analyzing how the spatial vector is perceived in these environments more advanced and improved.
Using and transforming virtual spaces involves converting technologies into new spaces of socialization, living via the Internet. In more tangible terms, we noticed a number of characteristics of these spaces that generate a sense of place, and they are based on sociability matters. So, findings from this study will be very relevant when designing a virtual environment for mapping the spatial dimension to achieve and promote effectively social interactions.
We should change to see the virtual spaces like a technological artefacts, to see them as contexts or environments of coexistence, interaction, as well a guide for personality development and construction of identities.
In addition, technologies did not originate a socio-territorial single model, but, as it has been happening always, it depends on how it is used and occupied by individuals. So, it would be necessary that virtual spaces would offer enough opportunities to every one could satisfy their level of adaptation, with different degrees of interaction too.
This paper and its results derived from a Research and Development Project: Interpretacin del espacio en los contextos virtuales de aprendizaje (Interpreting space in virtual environments), funding by the Spanish Educational Ministry. Ref. SEJ2005-06517/EDUC. Project Coordinator: Professor ngel Garca del Dujo.
Badie, B. (1995). Le fin des territoires. Paris: Arthme Fayard. Brown, J., Collins, A. y Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18 (1), 32-42. Echeverra, J. (2003). La revolucin tecnocientfica. Madrid: FCE. Eyles, J. (1985). Senses of place. Londres: Silverbook Pres. Garca del Dujo, A. & Martn Garca, A. V. (2002). Caracterizacin pedaggica de los entornos de aprendizaje. En Teora de la Educacin.
Revista Interuniversitaria, 14, 67-92. Garca del Dujo, A. & Muoz Rodrguez, J. M. (2003). Hermeneutica, territorio y educacin. La narratividad de los espacios, en AA. VV. Otros
Lenguajes en Educacin. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona/ICE. Garca del Dujo, A. & Muoz Rodrguez, J. M. (2004). Pedagoga de los espacios. Esbozo de un horizonte educativo para el siglo XXI. En
Revista Espaola de Pedagoga, 228, 257-279 Harasim, L. M. (1993). Networlds: networks a social space, en Harasim, L. M. (ed.): Global networks: computers and international
communication. Cambridge: MIT Pres, pp. 16-34. Hine, C. (2000). Etnografa virtual. Barcelona: UOC. Lessiter, J., Freeman, J., Keogh, E. & Davidoff, J. (2000). Development of a new cross-media presence questionnaire: The ITC-Sense of
presence. Delf: Netherlands. McKie, J. (2000). Conjuring notions of place. En Journal of Philosophy of Education, 34 (1). 111-122. Muntaola, J. (2004). Arquitectura, educacin y dialoga social, en Revista Espaola de Pedagoga, 228, 221-228. Muoz Rodrguez, J. M. (2005). El lenguaje de los espacios: interpretacin en trminos de educacin. En Teora de la Educacin. Revista
Interuniversitaria. 17, 209-226. Pellegrino, P. (2003). Le sens de lEspace. Les Grammaires et les Figures de lEnterndue. Livre III. Paris: Antropos. Santos, M. (2000). La naturaleza del espacio. Tcnica y tiempo. Razn y emocin. Barcelona: Ariel. Schuemie, M. J., Van del Straaten, P., Krijn, M., Van der Mast, C. P. G. (2001). Research on presence, in VR: A Survey. Cyberpsychology and
Behavior. Delf: Netherlands. Slater, M. (1999). Measuring presence: A response to Witmer & Singer questionnaire. En Presence, 8, (5), 560-565. Smith, M. A. & Kollock, P. (2003). Comunidades en el ciberespacio. Barcelona: UOC.