Game-Based Learning Sam Gedeborg. Gamification Process of using game thinking, mechanics to solve problems and engage learners. Gaming to Improve Learning.

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Game-Based LearningSam Gedeborg

Welcome to the Presentation!1GamificationProcess of using game thinking, mechanics to solve problems and engage learners.Gaming to Improve Learning Environment:Quest2LearnThe Fun TheoryGame-Based LearningGames that deal with applications that have defined learning outcomes.Gaming to Achieve Learning Goals:Timez AttackiCivicsNoble Prize Games

Gamification vs. Game-Based LearningBoth are used synonymously however, there are differences

Game-Based LearningUnderstanding a little of the difference between the definitions of Gamification and Game-Based Learning

The main difference is in that one is determined to improve learning environments while the other is used to achieve the learning objectives through the development of Gamification.

2Critiques of Game-Based LearningReasons some scholars believe it is ineffectiveGame-Based LearningIdeas from: Gabe ZichermannIntrinsic motivation gets lost due to the introduction and subsequent removal of extrinsic rewards.

Ex. Piano Competition

Remove Extrinsic and Rewards?Over-justificationLong-term effects?

Lack of data to show psychological effects

Casino addiction, Video Game addiction?

Games pit good vs. evil (one must conquer the evil) - What is evil?Addiction / CompulsionThe time for development


Compliance/Legal Costs

Continuing Relevance (improvement/upkeep)

Cost of OwnershipOver-justification: While intrinsically working towards a goal, a extrinsic motivation piece is introduced, and then not achieved. The student then loses the desire to continue working towards the goal due to the loss of the extrinsic motivation.

For example, a student in a piano competition, who may intrinsically love to play the piano, and always loved to play the piano may enter a competition. Then the student who loved to play the piano, won trophies or cash, and then lost at conservatory competitions may lose their desire to continue playing the piano. In a sense, the intrinsic desire was extinguished by the failure to maintain continuous rewards from the outside extrinsic reward system.

Some say that the extrinsic should therefore be removed to increase the ability to increase the intrinsic. But the achievement and subsequent reward are vital parts to understanding about game theory please note that I said Part.

Addiction / Compulsion: We dont understand the long-term effects of the addiction that results from game play. Also what the lasting effects psychologically of game play, particularly for the long term. Also, when games are played there is usually a epic battle between good and evil. In the basis behind education, what is the evil that the player must overcome.

Cost of Ownership: It costs a lot to put together a good game, in all aspects of development, testing, time, commitment, etc.

3Understanding GamificationGame-Based Learning

The goal behind gamification is to improve the quality of an activity through the mechanics of gaming. Notice the goal is to not replace games nor could it. Games are a form of entertainment a relief from the current worries and struggles one may go through.4The merging of Gamification into Game-Based LearningComponentEx. Introducing Sequences LessonEx. Jeopardy Review GameModuleEx. Developing Sequences CourseEx. Survivor AlgebraSchoolEx. Quest2Learn

Game-Based Learning

Games can be used for any degree in education from one concept all the way up to an entire university.5Features of Game-Based Learning (GBL)CompetitionEngagementRewardsAchievementMotivationAssessmentGame-Based LearningCompetitions: A score-keeping element that allows for motivation, and assessment. Does not need players competing against each other. Engagement: Once into the activity and game the learner does not wish to stop until the game or learning activity is over.Rewards: Needs to be immediate. By receiving points, badges, or even more descriptive feedback demonstrate competency and are part of assessment. Achievement: There has to be a certain level or goal that students must make in order to be considered for reaching an understanding and competency. Break up learning into levels of achievement.Motivation: The reason behind why I am doing what I am doing. Without motivation to continue forward in the game students wont achieve their goals.Assessment: There is an ultimate goal or outcome developed within the learning activity which demonstrates the competency of the learning.


Introducing SequencingGame-Based LearningMorrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Kemp, J. E. (2004). Designing effective instruction (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Sequencing is the efficient ordering of content in such a way as to help the learner achieve the objectives. (Morrison, 2004: 136)Development, structure, levels. The idea behind sequencing is to structure the learning in a clear order with the objectives and goals as the ultimate achievement.7Understanding SequencesMathematical Example of GBL

Game-Based Learning1, 2, 4, 8, 16, __, __, __Sequence 22, 4, 6, 8, __, __, __Sequence 1J, F, M, A, M, __, __, __Sequence 3

Speaking of sequencing: When I have given a set of 3 sequences to my Calculus students with low success (5%), while giving the same 3 sequences to younger audience of second graders I have had high successful rates (70%).

Answers: 10, 12, 1432, 64, 128J, J, A

Can you continue the patterns?8Over-justificationAddiction/compulsionCost of OwnershipRemember the goal is Game-Based Learning

Focus is on Learning Objectives (not just Gamification)Think about the 6 components of developing

Game-Based Learning

Game-Based LearningThings to consider as you move forward The link below is for a MOOC over game-based learning.9Thanks! Any Questions?

PowerPoint Template and Picture from

Game-Based LearningThanks for looking at this presentation.10